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310 Worlds

Written by Rabbi Yehoshua Alt, 8/2/2020

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310 Worlds

The last Mishna in Shas Mishnayos tells us that Hashem will endow each righteous person ( ) with 310 worlds[1] as it says .[2] These worlds are hinted to in the word , where everything is hinted to,[3] as when it is rearranged it spells , He created 310 (Gematria of ,) [worlds]. This is also alluded to in the name which is a contraction of , there is reward, as has a Gematria of 310.[4]

 

Where does this number 310 come from? Many explanations are given. The Sefer Hamaor Hagadol[5] cites seven distinct approaches from the Gra. R Yitzchak Isaac Chaver has a 40-page discussion of the topic.[6] The Kuntres Melachim Shai[7] has a collection of 155 interpretations, many of them Kabbalistic. Let us cite some of the explanations.   

 

1) There are 613 Mitzvos in the Torah and Sheva Mitzvos Bnei Noach, giving a total of 620.[8] 620 worlds divided into two is 310for the division of rewards between the Yissachar and the Zevulun, where Yissachar learns Torah and Zevulun supports him.[9]

 

2) A different explanation given by the Toras Chaim[10] is that although each Mitzva corresponds to an entire world, one person cant take all 620 worlds since man was created as a pair, as it says , Hashem created (man) male and female.[11] When a man and woman join together and observe all of the Mitzvos, they then merit all 620 worlds and divide the worlds among themeach one receives 310 worlds.[12]

 

3) The Birchas Yitzchak Al HaTorah explains it this way: 310 is two times 155. The two times 155 correspond to the two words in , acquire wisdom, acquire understanding.[13] The 310 worlds correspond to two acquisitions that one acquires through Torah and Mitzvos, Chochma and Binah.

 

4) Tosafos Yom Tov[14] writes that in this world, the Jewish people were given a land of seven nations, but in the World to Come, the entire worldall seventy nationswill be subservient, ten times the number of nations which the Jewish people inherited in this world. If, in this world, the Jewish people received the land of seven nations and conquered 31 kings (when we were given Eretz Yisrael), then in the World to Come when all seventy nations become subservient to the Jewish people, they will conquer 310 kingsten times as much. This is why it says , to inherita reference to inheriting the land.    

 

5) The Gra[15] relates an incredible calculation: There are 613 Mitzvos along with seven Rabbinical Mitzvos, giving a total of 620. From each Mitzva we perform we create a Malach, as the Mishna says.[16] One who does all 620 mitzvos creates 620 Malachim. Each Malach is 2,000 Parsaos.[17] Consequently, one who does all the Mitzvos creates 1,240,000 Parsaos of Malachim (620 multiplied by 2,000). Since the world is 4,000 Parsaos,[18] to contain all these Malachim we need 310 worlds (1,240,000 divided by 4,000 is 310)!

Rabbi Alt merited to learn under the tutelage of R Mordechai Friedlander Ztzl for close to five years. He received Semicha from R Zalman Nechemia Goldberg. Rabbi Alt has written on numerous topics for various websites and publications. He lives with his wife and family in a suburb of Yerushalayim where he studies, writes and teaches. The author is passionate about teaching Jews of all levels of observance.

[1] The Bartenura (s.v. ) explains, having reached the end of the six volumes of Shas, the Mishna teaches us about the great reward waiting for those who learn and fulfill all that is contained within it. 

[2] Uktzin 3:12. Mishlei 8:21. This teaching is placed at the end of Mishnayos. When we rearrange the word , it reads " , 310 portions. One who has merited to study and fulfill the Mishna will be granted 310 worlds (Pri Eitz Hadar, p. 26). 

[3] Pri Tzadik, Breishis, 1. This idea being in the last Mishna in Shas is also hinted in the word as when we arrange It, we get ,, the last Mishna ( means last as in the Mesachta ) speaks of the 310 worlds (Gematria of ,). 

[4] Bnei Yissaschar, Kislev Teves 5:9. In the name , the first is pronounced while the second one is silent. Why is the second one silent? Yissachar and Zevulun made a pact where Yissachar would study Torah all day and Zevulun would conduct business and split his profits equally with Yissachar. Reciprocally, half of the merits of Yissachars Torah study would be transferred to Zevulun. In order for one to be able to engage in full-time Torah study, there must be those who support Torah learning. So the first  in Yissacharrepresenting the active partner, Yissacharis pronounced. But the second representing the silent partner, Zevulunremains silent. Another explanation of the two s is that the pronounced one refers to the revealed part of Torah (Gemara and the like)while the silent refers to the concealed part (Kabbala).

[5] Volume 2, pp. 834-839.

[6] Siach Yitzchak, pp. 58-98. When R Yitzchak Isaac Chaver (1789-1853) was 14, R Menachem Mendel of Shklov began to teach him the Kabbala secrets of his teacher, the Gra. Through R Menachem Mendel, R Yitzchak Isaac came into possession of rare manuscripts of the Gras teachings. Leading Mekubalim of the generation would come to R Yitzchak Isaac to study those manuscripts. His younger contemporary, R Yitzchak Elchanan Spector (1817-1896), Rav of Kovno, called him the greatest Kabbalist of his time. Aside from his knowledge of Kabbala, he was renowned as a genius in Toras Hanigla as well, with fluency in Shas and Poskim. At the age of 60, he finished Shas for the 60th time. He held a number of Rabbinic posts and published numerous Sefarim, including " .

[7] Printed at the end of Otzar Hadranim, volume 2.

[8] These correspond to the 620 letters in the Ten Commandments (Baal Haturim, Shemos 20:14).

[9] See Yoreh Deah 246:1. In this way we could understand the wording receives 310 worlds, hinting to Yissachar and Zevulun.

[10] To Sanhedrin 100a.

[11] Bereishis 1:27.

[12] This is why it says , alluding to two different Tzadikim, the man and woman, who each receive 310 worlds.

[13] Mishlei 4:5. 

[14] S.v. . This was authored by R Yom Tov Lippman Heller (1579-1654). He was raised by his grandfather and became a disciple of the Maharal and the Kli Yakar. In 1597, when he was barely 18 years old, he received semicha to be a Dayan. He was the chief rabbi of Krakow during the Chmielnicki uprising of 1648. The Chmielnicki Massacres of Tach VTat (1648-1649) produced many Agunos, women whose husbands were missing with none to testify as to the actual death. R Heller did all that he could to find ways that they could remarry. In the summer of 1629, he was arrested at the order of the imperial court of Emperor Ferdinand the Second in which he was accused of insulting Christianity and imprisoned in Vienna. The commission's verdict was that he be sentenced to hard labor in prison. An influential court Jew appeared before the emperor to plead the rabbi's cause. He paid 12,000 thalers for his release on the condition that R Heller resign the post of chief rabbi of Prague and leave the country. After spending more than a month in prison, he was released. Among R Hellers descendants, was the Ketzos Hachoshen (1745-1812). R Hellers brother, R Yehuda (1743-1819), is the author of Kuntres Ha'Sfeikos, which often appears with the Ketzos Hachoshen. R Heller was a Kabbalist, and even wrote a Kabbalistic work, a commentary on Rabbeinu Bechaya Ben Asher, based on the Kabbalistic views of R Moshe Cordovero. His commentary to the Mishna is called Tosafos Yom Tov, after his name, with the incorporation of Tosafos, because he viewed the role of his commentary to the Mishna as analogous to the role of the Baalei HaTosafos in relation to Rashi and the Talmud. Among rabbis of his generation, he was exceptionally well versed in the secular sciences. His Talmudic works and his sermons show that he was interested in questions of arithmetic, astronomy, and natural science.  

[15] Hamaor Hagadol, p. 834.

[16] Avos 4:13.

[17] Chullin 91b. A Parsah is 8,000 Amos.

[18] That is, excluding the desert (see Pesachim 94a and Tosafos there s.v. ), since a desert is unnecessary for a Tzadik as he has no gain from it. The desert, a place of snakes and scorpions (See Devarim 1:19, Rashi), represents the Nachash, the Satan, the side of death and evil. It is a place that lacks water and life. 

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