chiddush logo

The Double-Header Haftarah

Written by Rabbi Yehuda Spitz, 30/8/2019

 Directly due to the interesting circumstances of this week, Parshas Reeh / Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul, an unusual occurrence will transpire in a fortnight on Parshas Ki Seitzei: a double haftarah. Not a printing mistake, this double haftarah will actually be recited by the vast majority of Ashkenazic congregations worldwide.

Many do realize this special occurrence even exists. In fact, one recent time this occurred, when I mentioned the uniqueness of this situation to the gabbai on that Shabbos itself, he responded that he had never heard of a double haftarah! He maintained that at the hashkama minyan, filled with Bnei Torah, not a single one pointed out such a thing! [No, I did not daven Haneitz that Shabbos.] I had to show this ruling to him explicitly in both the Mishnah Berurah and the Tukachinsky Luach Eretz Yisrael, before he consented to allow the Baal Koreh to read both haftaros. However, his skeptical response was quite understandable, as the previous occurrence of a double haftarah to that Shabbos was fourteen years prior!

Haftarah History

To properly understand why there can be a double haftarah, some background is needed.

The haftaros were established when the wicked Antiochus (infamous from the Chanukah miracle) outlawed public reading of the Torah. The Chachamim of the time therefore established the custom of reading a topic from the Neviim similar to what was supposed to be read from the Torah.[1] Even after the decree was nullified, and prior to the Gemaras printing, this became Minhag Yisroel.

Most haftaros share some similarity with at least one concept presented in the Torah reading. The Gemara Megillah (29b - 31a) discusses the proper haftarah readings for the various holidays throughout the year. The Pesikta (an early Midrash cited by many early authorities including Tosafos and the Abudraham)[2] continues the teachings of Chazal as to the proper haftarah readings starting from the Fast of Shiva Assur BTamuz.

During the Three Weeks from 17 Tamuz until Tisha BAv, we read Tilasa DParanusa, Three Readings of Punishment. After Tisha BAv (starting with Shabbos Nachamu, dubbed so due to its haftarah, Nachamu Nachamu Ami) until Rosh Hashanah, Shiva DNechemta, or Seven Readings of Consolation are read.[3] This is followed by a reading of Teshuva,[4] during the Shabbos between Rosh Hashanahand Yom Kippur, aptly named Shabbos Shuva, for its repentance themed haftarahstarting with Shuva Yisrael. The AbuDraham, as well as Rabbeinu Tam, conclude that these special haftarah readings are so important, that they are never pushed off!

Head To Head Haftaros

Our dilemma arises when that rule goes head-to-head with another rule. The Gemara (Megillah 31a) states that whenever Rosh Chodesh falls out on Shabbos, a special haftarah is read: Hashamayim Kisi, as it mentions both the inyanim of Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh.[5] If Rosh Chodesh falls out on Sunday, then on the preceding Shabbos the haftarah of Mochor Chodesh is read, as it mentions the following day being Rosh Chodesh.

The $64,000 question becomes, what happens when Rosh Chodesh Elul falls out on Shabbos or Sunday? Which ruling trumps which? Do we follow the Gemara or the Pesikta? Do we stick with the Shiva DNechemta or the special Rosh Chodeshreading?

The answer is that there is no easy answer! In fact, the Mordechai[6] cites both as separate, equally valid minhagim, with no clear cut ruling! So what are we supposed to do? Which minhag do we follow?

Sefardic Selection

The Beis Yosef[7] writes that the ikar halachah follows the Abudraham as he was considered an expert in these topics. Consequently, in the Shulchan Aruch,[8] he rules that on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul only that weeks haftarah of consolation, Aniyah Soarah is read. This would also hold true if Rosh Chodesh fell on Sunday, that only that weeks haftarah of consolation would be read, and not Machar Chodesh.[9] This is the general Sefardi ruling on this topic.[10]

Ashkenazic Action

Yet, the Rema, citing the Sefer Haminhagim of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Tyrnau (Tirna), a contemporary of the Terumas Hadeshen and Maharil (late 1300s - early 1400s), argues that since the special reading of Shabbos Rosh Chodesh also contains words of consolation, it is therefore the proper reading, even for Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul.[11] Moreover, this reading is mentioned specifically by the Gemara as the proper reading for Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, with no special dispensation given for Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul. Additionally, since it is recited more often (as Shabbos Rosh Chodesh falls out at least twice a year) one will fulfill the Talmudic dictum of tadir vsheino tadir, tadir kodem[12], that preference is given to the more common practice, by reading this haftarah instead.[13]

Parenthetically, and conversely, if Rosh Chodesh would fall out on Sunday, all would agree that only that weeks haftarah of consolation would be read, as there is no conciliatory theme in Mochor Chodesh.

Ground Rule Double

However, by maintaining the Rosh Chodesh priority, it would seem that we would miss out on one of the Shiva DNechemta, as there are not enough weeks before Rosh Hashanah to fit in all seven of these special haftaros when one of the haftaros[occurring when Rosh Chodesh falls out on Parshas Reeh] is taken up by Hashamayim Kisi. Yet, the Pesikta and Rishonim stressed the importance and necessity of each and every one of them being read.

Therefore, the Sefer Haminhagim maintains that we need to make up the missing haftarah, and it is done as an addition, on Parshas Ki Seitzei, two weeks later. The reason is that the haftarah of Parshas Reeh, Aniyah Soarah in the original Navi(Yeshaya Ch. 54: 11) follows consecutively after the haftarah of Parshas Ki Seitzei, Runi Akara (Yeshaya Ch. 54: 1). Therefore, this solution turns two separate haftarosinto one long double header[14] and thereby fulfills everyones requirement to hear all seven of the Conciliatory Haftaros.

This resolution of having a double-header haftarah on Parshas Ki Seitzei when Rosh Chodesh Elul falls out two weeks earlier on Parshas Reeh is cited and actually codified in halachah by many authorities including the RemaLevushMatteh EfraimMagen AvrohomChayei AdamKitzur Shulchan Aruch and, as mentioned previously, the Mishnah Berurah and Tukachinsky Calendar[15] is the definitive Ashkenazicruling. Sefardim, on the other hand, do not have this interesting occurrence, as they follow the Shulchan Aruchs rule of never pushing off any of the Shiva DNechemta, and thereby never having the need to double up haftaros.[16]

One need not worry about flipping pages to keep up with this double haftarah; it can be easily found in its full (combined) glory as the singular haftarah of Parshas Noach, as one of the topics mentioned in it is a reference to the Great Deluge, referred to as the Mei Noach.

Those who miss this unique opportunity should not fret too much, as we dont have to wait an additional fourteen years to have a Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul. In fact, aside for last year and this year, it will fall out several times over the next eight years.[17] Hopefully by then the gabbai will remember that double headers are not exclusively reserved for ballgames.

The author wishes to thank R Yoel Rosenfeld and R Shloime Lerner for raising awareness of this unique issue, and serving as the impetus for my interest and research in this topic.

This article was written lzechus Shira Yaffa bas Rochel Miriam vchol yotzei chalatzeha for a yeshua sheleimah teikif umiyad!

For any questions, comments or for the full Mareh Mekomos / sources, please email the author: [email protected].

Rabbi Yehuda Spitz serves as the Shoel U' Meishiv and Rosh Chabura of the Ohr Lagolah Halacha Kollel at Yeshivas Ohr Somayach in Yerushalayim.

[1] As per the Tosafos Yom Tov (Megillah, Ch. Bnei HaIrMishnah 4 s.v. lchisidran) citing the Sefer Hatishbi (Shoresh Petter). A similar background is given by the Abudraham (Seder Parshiyos VHaftaros).

[2] Including the Machzor Vitry (261 - 262), Abudraham (ibid.), the Mordechai(Megillah, end Ch. Bnei HaIr 831, end s.v. haghah), Tosafos (Megillah 31b s.v. rosh), Ran (ad loc.), and Rashba (ad loc.).

[3] See Machzor Vitry and Abudraham (ibid.) for two separate reasons why the Shiva DNechemta are in its specific order.

[4] Although the Pesikta, according to the Abudraham, maintains that there should be two haftaros of repentance, common minhag is that only one, Shuva Yisrael, is read on a Shabbos. The other, Dirshu Hashem BiHeematzo, is read on TzomGedalyah (by Mincha) instead. [This is especially important, as the Gemara RoshHashana 18a explains that this is referring to the Aseres Yemei Teshuva.] See Tosafos(ibid.), Tur (Orach Chaim 428: 8) and Beis Yosef (ad loc. end s.v. umash).

[5] See also Shut Noda BYehuda (TinyanaOrach Chaim 11).

[6] Mordechai (ibid).

[7] Beis Yosef (Orach Chaim 425: 1 s.v. umash), Abudraham (ibid.).

[8] Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 425: 1).

[9] See however Shut Divrei Malkiel (vol. 3: 27), who opines that for Sefardim it is possible that Machar Chodesh would still be the proper reading as it mentions the Kevius of Rosh Chodesh in its proper time.

[10] See Kaf Hachaim (Orach Chaim 425: 13), Shut Rabbi Eliyahu Mizrachi (7), Shut Yechaveh Daas (vol. 3: 45), Rav Mordechai Eliyahus Darchei Halacha glosses to the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (128: 5), and Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan AruchOrach Chaim 581, par. Ode BHilchos Chodesh Elul 7). The Rambam (Hilchos Tefilla Ch. 13: 14) actually implies this way as well.

[11] Rema (Orach Chaim 425: 1 & in Darchei Moshe ad loc.), based on the SeferHaminhagim (whom he refers to as Minhagim Shelanu, beg. Ch. Minhag shel Rosh Chodesh Elul vErev Rosh Hashana). He mentions that several other Rishonim, including the Ohr ZaruaMahari Weil, and the Tur rule this way as well.

[12] See, for example, Brachos 59b, Megillah 29b, Pesachim 114a, Sukka 54b & 56a, and Zevachim 91a.

[13] These additional reasons were not written by the Sefer Haminhagim himself, but are found in the Haghos there (90), as well as in the works of later authorities mentioned in this article.

[14] For more on the topic of the halachic feasibility of combining two haftaros of the Shiva DNechemta, see Terumas Hadeshen (vol. 2, Psakim UKsavim 94) and Shut Tzemach Tzedek (126).

[15] Including the Levush (Orach Chaim 425: 2 & 581: 1), Matteh Efraim (581: 5), Shaarei Efraim (Shaar 9: 23), Magen Avrohom (425: 1), Machatzis Hashekel (ad loc.), Baer Heitiv (425: 2), Derech Hachaim (Shaar Hakollel 8), Shulchan Atzei Shittim(Krias HaTorah 6), Chayei Adam (vol. 2, 118: 16), Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (128: 4), Mishnah Berurah (425: 7), Luach Eretz Yisroel (5775 and 5776, ElulParshas KiSeitzei), and Rav Yosef Eliyahu Henkins Ezras Torah Luach (5775 and 5776, ElulShabbos Parshas Reeh s.v. Shacharis and Parshas Ki Seitzei). See also AruchHashulchan (Orach Chaim 425: 5 & 428: 7) and Shut Minchas Chein (vol. 2, Orach Chaim 23).

[16] In many Sefardic congregations, on Parshas Reeh the first and last pasuk of HaShamayim Kisi is still read (as well as the first and last pasuk of MochorChodesh if applicable), as otherwise, they would not have read it at all this time around. See Rav Mordechai Eliyahus Darchei Halacha glosses to the Kitzur ShulchanAruch (128: 4) and Yalkut Yosef (ibid.) who cite such a minhag, in order to at least catch some of HaShamayim Kisi (and Mochor Chodesh). For Ashkenazim who end up reading both haftaros, there is no need to do so.

[17] According to Rabbi Dovid Heber of the Star-K and author of Shaarei Zemanim, for most Ashkenazic Kehillos this double haftarah is actually read 70 times in the Turs (Orach Chaim end 428) 247-year cycle, making it overall not that uncommon. In fact, with the similar calendar setup of 5775 and 5776, this will actually occur in back to back years.

Disclaimer: This is not a comprehensive guide, rather a brief summary to raise awareness of the issues. In any real case one should ask a competent Halachic authority.

L'iluy Nishmas the Rosh HaYeshiva - Rav Chonoh Menachem Mendel ben R' Yechezkel Shraga, Rav Yaakov Yeshaya ben R' Boruch Yehuda, and l'zchus for Shira Yaffa bas Rochel Miriam and her children for a yeshua teikef u'miyad!

1995-2019 Ohr Somayach International - All rights reserved.

Articles may be distributed to another person intact without prior permission. We also encourage you to include this material in other publications, such as synagogue or school newsletters. Hardcopy or electronic. However, we ask that you contact us beforehand for permission in advance at [email protected] and credit for the source as Ohr Somayach Institutions

To dedicate this Chiddush (Free!) Leiluy Nishmas,Refuah Sheleimah, Hatzlacha, click here
Agree? Disagree? Want to add anything? Comment on the chiddush!
Discussions - Answers and Comments (0)
This chiddush has not been commented on yet